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Monitoring of ecosystem impacts

Member States must monitor the impact of air pollution on their ecosystems.


Article 9 of the NEC Directive (Directive (EU) 2016/2284) requires Member States to monitor the impact of air pollution on the ecosystems in their territory.

Member States need to develop and implement a monitoring system that

  • identifies negative impacts of air pollution on ecosystems (acidification, eutrophication and ozone damage)
  • covers a network representative of the Member State’s habitats and ecosystem types

Annex V to the Directive lists optional indicators that Member States can use for this monitoring. Every four years, Member States must report information about their monitoring sites and monitored parameters to the Commission and the European Environment Agency (EEA). The first such reporting were due by 1 July 2018 and 1 July 2019 respectively.

This work on ecosystem impacts is done in cooperation, as appropriate, with the Working Group on Effects, a subsidiary body under the UNECE Air Convention. There are also synergies with the Commission work on the Biodiversity Strategy and with the monitoring done under the Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive.


To support this monitoring, a number of tools are available for Member States:

These tools have been developed in collaboration with Member States, the EEA and colleagues from the Air Convention Working Group on Effects.

Useful links and information sources