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Environment

The European Red List of Threatened Species

Download European Red List reports

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European redlist of medicinal plants

This Red List publication summarises results for the selected European medicinal plants.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

The status and distribution of European mammals

The European Mammal Assessment (EMA) is the first review of the conservation status of all wild mammals in Europe according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

Pollinators on the edge : our European hoverflies : the European red list of hoverflies

This European Red List provides a summary of the conservation status of the European species of hoverflies, evaluated according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (2012a) and IUCN’s global (IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee, 2022) and regional (IUCN, 2012b) guidelines.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European Red List of insect taxonomists

Insects play a significant role in the functioning of healthy ecosystems and human well-being. By providing vital services such as pollination, matter decomposition, and bio-control, they greatly influence the living world.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of birds 2021

The European Red List of Birds is a review of the regional extinction risk of all 544 species of birds occurring regularly and naturally in Europe.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European Red List of mosses, liverworts and hornworts

This publication is a summary of the conservation status of the European species of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, collectively known as bryophytes.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European Red List of mosses, liverworts and hornworts

This publication is a summary of the conservation status of the European species of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, collectively known as bryophytes.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European Red List of trees

This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of tree (454 species), of which 265 species (over 58%) are endemic to continental Europe, with 56% (252 species) endemic to the 28 EU Member States.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European Red List of Saproxylic Beetles

Saproxylic beetles are insects that depend on dead and decaying wood for at least part of their lifecycle, and play important ecological roles in European habitats.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European Red List of lycopods and ferns

With 194 species assessed, this assessment highlights that 19.9% of lycopod and fern species are threatened with extinction in Europe.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of marine fishes

This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of marine fishes (1,220 species). 7.5% of species are threatened with extinction at the European level due to mainly overfishing, coastal development, energy production and mining, and pollution.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of birds

This publication summarises results for Europe’s 533 native species of birds.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of bees

This publication summarises results for all Europe’s native species of bees (1,965 species).

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of non-marine molluscs

This publication summarises results for all of Europe's native freshwater species of mollusc and for a selection of terrestrial mollusc families.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of freshwater fishes

This publication summarises results for Europe's native species of freshwater fishes and lampreys. At least 37% of these species are threatened.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of vascular plants

The European Red List was compiled by IUCN's Global Species Programme and Regional Office for Europe and is the product of a service contract with the European Commission.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of saproxylic beetles

This publication summarises results for a selection of Europe’s native species of saproxylic beetles.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of dragonflies

This publication summarises results for Europe’s 137 native (sub) species of damselflies and dragonflies.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of Butterflies

This publication summarises results for a selection of Europe’s native species of butterflies. About 9% of the species are threatened with extinction at the European level as a result of threats including habitat loss and degradation due to changes in agricultural management.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of amphibians

This publication summarises results for Europe’s 85 native species of amphibians.

  • General publications
  • Directorate-General for Environment

European red list of reptiles

This publication summarises results for Europe’s 151 native species of terrestrial and freshwater reptiles.