Retaining deadwood in disturbed forests reduces changes to soil fungal communities and promotes regeneration
Events such as storms that cause significant damage to forest trees have obvious effects above ground. What happens below ground is less apparent, and less studied.
As species’ ranges shift due to climate change, ecosystems will be altered and may change how they function.
Establishing protected areas (PAs) is important for the conservation of species, but more data is needed on their effectiveness.
Sowing wildflower areas is a common agri-environment measure, however, its biodiversity impacts are disputed.
Transition to a low-carbon economy will create additional demand for many raw materials, production of which will have a range of environmental impacts.
Abandoned agriculture in the Valencia Region, Spain: a transition to woodland and scrubland over a 50-year period
Abandonment of agricultural areas in Mediterranean Europe can exacerbate fire risk due to increases in natural vegetation.
Freshwater ecosystems in urban areas face a variety of pressures and are often significantly degraded.